Solar Wind/SOHO 16

Session: Poster session: Future Missions (13)
Type: Poster Presentation
Date: Monday, June 13, 2005
Time: 00:00 - 00:00

Seq   Time   Title   Abs No
2   00:00   MEXART Measurements of Radio Sources
Americo, Gonzalez-Esparza1; Carrillo, A.1; Andrade, E.1; Perez-Enriquez, R.1; Kurtz, S.1; Jeyakumar, S.1; Ananthakrishnan, S.2; Sierra, P.3; Vazquez, S.3

We report the advances in the construction of a 64x64 wavelength dipole antenna element, occupying 10,000 square meters (70 m x 140 m) to carry out interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at 140 MHz. This will be a dedicated (24 hours) radio array for IPS observations which is being built in Coeneo, Michoacαn (350 km north-west from Mexico City, 19''48 degrees north and 101''41 degrees west). We report the initial observations of radio sources and the calibration of the antenna pattern.

3   00:00   EMMA : The EIT MPEG Movies Archive at The Multi Experiment Data Operation Center (MEDOC)
Auchere, Frederic
Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, FRANCE

We introduce the EIT moives archive provided by the MEDOC center. The entire EIT data archive was recently processed to produce daily and monthly movies in the four wavelengths (171/195/284/304 A). The movies are updated once a day using quicklook data. The movies are recreated whenever new level zero data become available. Both intensity and running difference movies are produced. Unlike what is usually done, the differential rotation is compensated in the difference movies. The movies are available via a simple easy-to-use web interface. The MPEG 1 standard was adopted for portability reasons. Conversion to a more performant encoding standad like MPEG 2 or DivX is under study. In the near future, 171/195 temperature sensitive line ratios as well as RGB 284/195/171 movies will be included available. This archive also serves as a prototype of the archive that will be developped for the SECCHI/STEREO data.

4   00:00   Solar Imaging Radio Array: Microsatellite-based Imaging of Solar Radio Bursts
Bale, Stuart D.1; MacDowall, R. J.2; Gopalswamy, N.2; Kaiser, M. L.2; Demaio, L. D.2; Howard, R. E.3; Jones, D. L.4; Kasper, J. C.5; Reiner, M. J.6; Weiler, K. W.7

No present or approved spacecraft mission has the capability to provide high angular resolution imaging of solar or magnetospheric radio bursts or of the celestial sphere at frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff. In this presentation, we review a MIDEX-class mission to perform such imaging in the frequency range ~30 kHz to 15 MHz. The focus of the mission, the Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA), is solar and exploration-oriented, with emphasis on improved understanding and application of radio bursts associated with solar energetic particle (SEP) events and on tracking shocks and other components of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). SIRA will require 12 to 16 micro-satellites to establish a sufficient number of baselines with separations on the order of kilometers. The constellation consists of microsats located quasi-randomly on a spherical shell, initially of radius ~5 km. The baseline microsat is 3-axis stabilized with body-mounted solar arrays and an articulated, earth pointing high gain antenna. The constellation will likely be placed at L1, which is the preferred location for full-time solar observations.

5   00:00   The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope
Bastian, Timothy1; White, S. M.2; Hurford, G. J.3; Zurbuchen, T. H.4; Gary, D. E.5; Pick, M.6
1NRAO, UNITED STATES; 2University of Maryland, UNITED STATES; 3UC/Berkeley, UNITED STATES; 4University of Michigan, UNITED STATES; 5New Jersey Institute of Technology, UNITED STATES; 6Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, FRANCE

This poster presents an overview of the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope, a solar-dedicated interferometric imaging array of more than 100 antennas operating across three decades of radio frequency from 30 MHz -- 30 GHz. The instrument will be operated as a completely open national and international facility, with both real-time data products for Space Weather forecasting and archived data for in-depth studies. The broad frequency range provides comprehensive coverage of solar structure and activity from the low chromosphere to a height of at least 2.5 solar radii. The spatial resolution (1" at 20 GHz), time resolution (10-100 ms), spectral resolution (df/f less than 1%), and image quality are significantly better than existing instruments. The combination of spatial and spectral coverage allow quantitative analyses through imaging spectroscopy that will significantly advance our understanding of the Sun and drivers of Space Weather. The poster describes the organization, status, and schedule for the project, which is to be managed under Associated Universities Incorporated (AUI) with participation from university and international partners.

6   00:00   The Plasma and SupraThermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) Instrument Onboard STEREO: Scientific Objectives and Instrument Capabilities
Blush, Lisa1; Bochsler, P.1; Daoudi, H.1; Galvin, A.2; Karrer, R.1; Kistler, L.2; Klecker, B.3; Moebius, E2; Opitz, A.1; Popecki, M.2; Thompson, B.4; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R5; Wurz, P.1
1University of Bern, SWITZERLAND; 2University of New Hampshire, UNITED STATES; 3Max-Planck Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, GERMANY; 4Goddard Space Flight Center, UNITED STATES; 5University of Kiel, GERMANY

The PLAsma and SupraThermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) instrument construction, testing and measurement calibrations are nearing completion. Finalized flight model (FM1 and FM2) calibrations followed by instrument integration with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft are anticipated in May 2005. The STEREO mission will provide a unique opportunity to investigate the 3-dimensional structure of the heliosphere, with particular focus on the origin, evolution, and propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The mission also seeks to determine the sites and mechanisms of energetic particle acceleration as well as develop a 3-D time-dependent understanding of the ambient solar wind properties. This will be achieved utilizing four STEREO instrument packages with in situ and remote sensing capabilities. The PLASTIC instruments will diagnose properties of the solar wind and suprathermal protons, alphas, and heavy ions. PLASTIC will determine bulk solar wind plasma parameters (density, velocity, temperature, temperature anisotropy, and alpha/proton ratio) and the distribution functions of major heavy solar wind ions in the energy per charge range 0.25-100keV/e. A full characterization of the solar wind and suprathermal ions will be achieved with a system that measures ion energy per charge (E/q), ion velocity distribution (v), and ion energy (E). Two identical PLASTIC instruments located on the separate spacecraft will provide in situ plasma measurements in order to study physical processes low in the corona and in the inner heliosphere. Elemental and charge state abundances provide tracers of the ambient coronal plasma, fractionated populations from coronal and heliospheric events, and local source populations of energetic particle acceleration. In this presentation, the PLASTIC operation principles will be presented along with a review of instrument ion beam calibration results.

7   00:00   Numerical Results for the Neutral Particle Detector of Coronal Hole-Associated Neutral Solar Wind as Expected at the Solar Orbiter Position
D'Amicis, Raffaella1; Orsini, S.2; Antonucci, E.3; Telloni, D.3; Fineschi, S.3; Milillo, A.1; Bruno, R.1; Di Lellis, A.M.4; Hilchenbach, M.5
1IFSI-INAF, ITALY; 2IFSI-CNR, ISRAEL; 3Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino-INAF, ITALY; 4AMDL-Rome, ITALY; 5Max Planck Institut fόr Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, GERMANY

Neutral hydrogen is indicative of the behaviour of the main solar wind component formed by protons out to at least 3 solar radii. In fact, beyond this distance the characteristic time for charge exchange between hydrogen atoms and protons becomes shorter than the coronal expansion time scale causing the neutrals to decouple from the charged solar wind. However they retain information on the three-dimensional coronal distribution of hydrogen at the level where they are generated. In the present study, we report our preliminary results concerning the simulation of the neutral solar wind distribution as expected at the Solar Orbiter position, considering the evolution of a coronal-hole emerging solar wind whose major parameters are estimated by the SOHO UVCS experiment. This synergy will enable us to infer the degree of anisotropy, if any, in the neutral and charged coronal hydrogen close to 3 solar radii.

8   00:00   The Reconnection and Microscale (RAM) Probe
DeLuca, Edward1; Golub, L.2; Martens, P.3; Antichos, S.4
1Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, UNITED STATES; 2SAO, UNITED STATES; 3Montana State University, UNITED STATES; 4Naval Research Laboratory, UNITED STATES

We present a summary of the recent work carried out by the RAM study group. The last SEC Roadmap gave a strong endorsement to the RAM Probe and placed it in the intermediate-term mission category. The primary purpose of the RAM Probe is to determine the underlying process by which high energy radiation and particles are created throughout the plasma universe. This presentation provides an assessment of this mission: the overall scientific rationale, the technology status of the strawman mission components and the specific scientific goals that will be achieved by this mission.

9   00:00   The Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Composition Investigation on STEREO: Expected Science Return and Data Products
Galvin, Antoinette1; Kistler, L1; Popecki, M2; Moebius, E2; Blush, L M3; Bochsler, P3; Wurz, P3; Klecker, B4; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F5; Thompson, B6; Singer, K2; Ellis, L2; Daoudi, H3; Karrer, R3; Opitz, A3
1University of New Hampshire, UNITED STATES; 2University of New Hampshire, UNITED STATES; 3University of Bern, SWITZERLAND; 4Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestial Physics, GERMANY; 5University of Kiel, GERMANY; 6NASA GSFC, UNITED STATES

The Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) investigation is one of four instrument packages on the twin STEREO spacecraft that are to be launched in the spring of 2006. The STEREO mission will be studying Coronal Mass Ejections with coordinated remote imaging (SECCHI and SWAVES) and in situ (PLASTIC and IMPACT) measurements. The PLASTIC sensor combines electrostatic deflection, post acceleration, time-of-flight, energy and position measurements to determine energy spectra, species (M, M/Q), and directional information of low energy ions, such as the solar wind and pick up ions. The PLASTIC sensors will provide the solar wind ion plasma and suprathermal ions up to 100 keV/e with one to five minute cadence under nearly all ambient conditions. We will discuss here the expected science return and data products that will be available from the PLASTIC investigation. A companion paper (Blush et al.) discusses instrument calibration results.

10   00:00   Science with the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope
Gary, Dale1; Bastian, T. S.2; White, S. M.3; Hurford, G. J.4; Zurbuchen, T. H.5
1New Jersey Institute of Technology, UNITED STATES; 2NRAO, UNITED STATES; 3University of Maryland, UNITED STATES; 4UC/Berkeley, UNITED STATES; 5University of Michigan, UNITED STATES

The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a new instrument that is designed to be the world's premiere solar radio facility for at least two decades after its completion in 2010. We present an overview of the broad range of science that FASR will address, and highlight the topics of interest to the Space Weather community. These include imaging of CMEs, from their nascent stages on the disk to a height of at least 2.5 solar radii, and simultaneous, perfectly co-registered imaging of many associated phenomena such as filament eruptions, sites of particle acceleration, and shock waves (type II bursts). High resolution imaging/spectroscopy over three decades of frequency (30 MHz - 30 GHz) will provide a new perspective on many solar phenomena, such as the accurate measurement of coronal magnetic field strengths, and the ability to track electron beams and shock waves in 3-dimensions as they propagate through the corona. We also give an overview of the current status of the project.

11   00:00   The Future is Here Already: Virtual Observatories for the Solar and Heliospheric Data Environment
Gurman, Joseph B.; Szabo, A
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, UNITED STATES

The last two years have seen major strides in the development of "virtual observatories," discipline-specific search and data delivery engines that virtualize the task of looking for a variety of online data sources that meet a scientific user's search criteria. We discuss in particular the Virtual Solar Observatory(VSO) and Virtual Heliospheric Observatory(VHO), with emphasis on how the availability of such tools is likely to change the way many of us will approach identifying and analyzing data in the era of STEREO, Solar-B, and SDO.

12   00:00   Potential Observations of the Solar Atmosphere via In-Situ Measurements of the Neutral Solar Wind
Hilchenbach, M.1; Bamert, K.2; Czechowski, A.3
1Max-Planck-Institut fόr Sonnensystemforschung, GERMANY; 2Institut fόr Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, GERMANY; 3Polish Academy of Sciences, Space Research Centre, POLAND

Neutral hydrogen atoms are closely coupled to the emerging solar wind plasma. They give rise to the prominent solar Ly-alpha corona. The ratio of the densities of neutral hydrogen and protons is very small, some parts per million, and the neutral atoms are therefore a trace particle population in the solar wind plasma. In-situ observations of the neutral atoms, their flight paths (imaging), densities and velocity distributions might help to redefine the understanding of the Ly-α corona, i.e. setting limits on the plasma velocity distribution along the solar magnetic field lines. We will discuss the gain and limitations of such observations and possible instrumentation.

13   00:00   Capabilities of UV Coronagraphic Spectroscopy for Studying the Source Regions of Solar Energetic Particles and the Solar Wind
Kohl, John; Cranmer, S.R.; Gardner, L. D.; Lin, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Strachan, L.
Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, UNITED STATES

We summarize the unique capabilities of UV coronagraphic spectroscopy for determining the detailed plasma properties (e.g., density, temperature, outflow speed, composition) of the source regions of both transient phenomena such as CMEs,flares, and solar energetic particles (SEPs) and more time-steady solar wind streams. UVCS/SOHO observations have provided the first detailed diagnostics of the physical conditions of CME plasma in the extended corona. It provided new insights into the roles of shock waves, reconnection, and magnetic helicity in CME eruptions. We summarize past observations and discuss the diagnostic potential of UV coronagraphic spectroscopy for characterizing two possible sites of SEP production: CME shocks and reconnection current sheets. UVCS/SOHO has also led to fundamentally new views of the acceleration region of the solar wind. Understanding the physical processes in this region, which ranges from the low corona (r = 1.1 - 1.5 Rsun) past the sonic points (r > 5 Rsun), is key to linking the results of solar imaging to in situ particle and field detection. Despite the advances that have resulted from UVCS/SOHO, more advanced instrumentation could determine properties of additional ions with a wider sampling of charge/mass combinations. This would provide much better constraints on the specific kinds of waves that are present as well as the specific collisionless damping modes. Electron temperatues and departures from Maxwellian velocity distributions could also be measured. The instrumentation capable of making the above observations will be described.

Koval, Andrey1; Nemecek, Z1; Safrankova, J1; Jelinek, K1; Zastenker, G N2; Shevyrev, N2
1Charles University, CZECH REPUBLIC; 2Space Research Institute, RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Solar wind parameters are usually measured by scanning spectrometers and thus the achievable time resolution is limited to several seconds. Present investigations have shown that a ten or more times better resolution would provide a new view on measurements of fast solar wind variations. However, such resolution is beyond possibilities of scanning methods. For this reason, we are presenting a proposal of a small solar wind monitor based on Faraday cups (FCs) and a new method of ion bulk velocity, temperature, and density determinations from integral energy spectrum. The device is designed for measuring in wide ranges of solar wind velocities (from 300 to 750 km/s), temperatures (from 1 to 30 eV), and densities (from 1 to 200 particles in cm-3) assuming the angle of incidence up to 20 deg. Six FCs of the monitor are divided into two sets. The first three of them are oriented toward the Sun and equipped with positive grids. This set of FCs allows us to determine the density, speed, and temperature using a three-point Maxwellian fit. Three FCs of the second set are declined from the sunward direction and their data are used for velocity vector determination. A preliminary testing of the method shows that the system can provide reliable data with 16 Hz of time resolution. We suppose to place this monitor onboard the SPECTR-R spacecraft on an orbit with apogee of 350 000 km.

15   00:00   Space Weather with ESA's PROBA-2 Mission
Lawrence, Gareth1; Berghmans, D1; Hochedez, J-F1; Ben-Moussa, A1; Dominique, M1; Katsiyannis, A1; Nicula, B1; Defise, J-M2; Lecat, J-H2
1Royal Observatory of Belgium, BELGIUM; 2Centre Spatial de Liege, BELGIUM

The ESA PROBA-2 mission, due for launch in Feb. 2007, will carry onboard two instruments that will greatly enhance ESA's space weather capabilities. the Sun Watcher with APS Detector and Processing - SWAP - is a full disk imager that will monitor the Sun at high temporal cadence and spatial resolution in a single extreme UV passband,while the Lyman-Alpha RAdiometer - LYRA - will measure the solar flux in four carefully selected UV passbands. All five passbands have been chosen chosen for their relevance to aeronomy, space weather and solar physics. SWAP can be viewed as ESA's replacement for the EIT instrument onboard the ESA/NASA SOHO mission, while LYRA's higher-energy channels will complement the soft X-ray time series data observed by NOAA's GOES satellite series. Together they will provide real-time monitoring of solar output and eruptive events from the same platform. The scientific objectives, operational capabilities, technological advances - particularly the novel detectors used by the two instruments - and anticipated return will be presented. Furthermore, in keeping with the general philosophy of the PROBA mission program both instruments, as well as the satellite itself, will be able - in fact, required - to perform a wide variety of autonomous operations. This innovative aspect will be covered in detail.

16   00:00   3D Sun Loop Tracer: A Tool for Stereoscopy of Coronal Loops for NASA's STEREO Mission
Liewer, Paulett; Hall, J R; De Jong, E M; Lorre, J L; Sheth, P
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, UNITED STATES

Stereoscopy and triangulation can be used to determine the three-dimensional geometry of coronal loops seen in simultaneous images from the two STEREO spacecraft. Here we demonstrate a new tool, 3D Sun Loop Tracer (SLT), which uses stereoscopy to determine the 3D structure of a loop that can be identified in both images. SLT proceeds in several stages. First, the user ``seeds" the tool by selecting the same loop in the two images of a stereoscopic pair. Next, the tool uses loop tracing algorithms and triangulation techniques to obtain the three-dimensional (x,y,z) coordinates of points on the loop. The tool has been developed and tested using a physics-based synthetic 3D coronal model (K. Schrijver, private communication). The tool has been shown to produce accurate results for loop reconstruction over a wide range of stereoscopic (separation) angles. The goal is to use this tool to analyze the evolution and stored magnetic energy in loops observed by the EUV instruments on the STEREO spacecraft. Once the loops have been reconstructed in 3D, they can be compared to non-potential magnetic field line extrapolations. In the future, we plan to incorporate a magnetogram-based magnetic field model and implement a procedure for adjusting the parameters of the extrapolation to match the reconstructed loops. In this way, the evolution of the stored magnetic energy can be determined.

Maksimovic, Milan1; Roux, A.2; Vial, J.-C.3; Lallement, R.4; Lequeau, D.5; Louarn, P.6; Pinηon, J.-L.7
1Observatoire de Paris & CNRS, FRANCE; 2CETP, FRANCE; 3IAS, FRANCE; 4Service d'Aeronomie, FRANCE; 5Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, FRANCE; 6CESR, FRANCE; 7LPCE, FRANCE

For long, solar and plasma physicists have dreamt of a mission to explore our nearest star, the Sun, the most visible body in the solar system and yet one of the last unexplored frontiers, in the solar system. No in-situ measurements have been carried out inside the solar regions where the plasma is accelerated to form a supersonic/superalfvenic flow. Yet the process(es) that accelerates a supersonic wind of plasma in the corona and fills the whole solar system is still far from being understood. Measurements from Ulysses give evidence for two types of winds, but we do not know what determines the difference between the fast and slow solar wind. Recent measurements from SOHO suggest that ion-cyclotron waves heat the solar wind minor ions and protons, but we do not understand how they are generated and propagate from the base of the corona to several Rs.

Several Solar Probe concept missions have been explored since the early age of space exporation : from the very first Vulcain project at the ESA level, to the current study at NASA (STDT). In this presentation, we wish to recall the main outcome of a preliminary study, performed in the frame of a proposal submitted a few years ago to CNES, that is : (i) a probe without RTG (nuclear powered generator) seems feasible, (ii) multiple passages near the Sun are possible and (iii) there exist materials that maintain the outgassing of the thermal shield to an acceptable level. Having this in mind, a solar probe mission concept is presented.

18   00:00   The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)
McComas, David
Southwest Research Institute, UNITED STATES

The recently selected Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission will launch in mid-2008 and provide the first global views of the interstellar interactions and boundaries at the edge of our heliosphere. IBEX makes these exploratory observations using two ultra-high sensitivity single pixel energetic neutral atom (ENA) cameras that image ENAs from 10 eV – 6 keV in 14 energy bins. The IBEX spacecraft is a simple sun-pointed spinner, which allows the ENA cameras to sweep out full sky views of the heliospheric interaction every six months. IBEX will launch into a very high apogee Earth orbit (37 Re) using a standard Pegasus launch vehicle coupled with an additional solid rocket motor. IBEX’s highly elliptical Earth orbit allows viewing of the outer heliosphere from beyond the Earth’s relatively bright magnetospheric ENA emissions. This paper provides an overview of the IBEX science, instrumentation, and mission.

McNutt, Ralph1; Gold, R E1; Krimigis, S M1; Roelof, E C1; Gruntman, M2; Gloeckler, G3; Koehn, P L3; Kurth, W S4; Oleson, S R5; Leary, J C1; Fiehler, D6; Anderson, B J1; Horanyi, M7; Mewaldt, R A8
1Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, UNITED STATES; 2University of Southern California, UNITED STATES; 3University of Michigan, UNITED STATES; 4University of Iowa, UNITED STATES; 5NASA Glenn Research Center, UNITED STATES; 6QSS Group, Inc., UNITED STATES; 7University of Colorado, Boulder, UNITED STATES; 8California Institute of Technology, UNITED STATES

An interstellar “precursor” mission has been under discussion in the scientific community for over 25 years. Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements that such a mission could provide. The problem is the development of a probe that can provide the required measurements and can reach a heliocentric distance of at least 200 astronomical units (AU) in a “reasonable” time. Previous studies have looked at the use of a near-Sun propulsive maneuver, solar sails, and fission-reactor-powered nuclear electric propulsion systems (NEP) for propulsion. Our approach: The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is being studied under a NASA “Vision Mission” grant. Speed is provided by a combination of a high-energy launch, using current launch vehicle technology, a Jupiter gravity assist, and long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration provided by a kilowatt-class ion thruster running off electricity provided by advanced Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs). While subject to mass and power limitations for the instruments on board, such an approach relies on known technology and current launch vehicles for speed, both of which require little new development and have well-known regulatory requirements for launch. A payload of nine instruments with an aggregate mass of ~40 kg and requiring ~35 W has been carefully chosen to address the compelling science questions. The baseline spacecraft configuration and properties were chosen on the basis of a variety of trade studies meant to minimize the transit time and optimize the data return. The total (wet mass) is ~900 kg including ~400 kg of xenon for propellant. The baseline launch vehicle is a Delta IV 4050H that boosts a stack consisting of the spacecraft and a two-stage solid kick motor using a Star 48 and Star 37 engine to well past Earth escape. The trajectory set was picked after examining all credible single-planet gravity assists using outer planets in the 2010 through 2050 time frame. One two-planet (Jupiter-Saturn) trajectory was also considered. The nominal 20-day launch window opens on 15 October 2014. A close Jupiter gravity assist in late 2015 and the REP system accelerate the spacecraft to a “burnout” speed of 9.5 AU per year at 103 AU in November 2029. Routine data collection begins shortly after the flyby with downlinks that vary from about once per month to once per week. As the thrust direction and the transmission direction differ, the ion engine is shut down during transmission and the spacecraft reoriented for the downlink. Thruster power is re-routed to the telecommunications system to maximize the downlink data rate. Thrusting is resumed until the next downlink. During cruise, the spacecraft maintains a slow roll (few revolutions per day) in order to provide full azimuthal viewing. Following the depletion of the xenon propellant, the spacecraft roll axis is oriented to maintain the high-gain antenna toward Earth. The combination of the onboard Ka-band transmitter, SRG power, and planned upgraded Deep Space Network receiver “farm” enables a downlink of at least 500 bits per second to 200 AU, the distance reached January 2040, some 25 years after launch. Additional (backup) launch opportunities occur every 13 months to early 2018, with increases in the time to 200 AU up to January 2049 (31 year transit time). The pattern repeats with Jupiter’s orbital period with the next set of favorable opportunities commencing about 2026.

20   00:00   The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Integrated Access to Present and Future Solar and Space Physics Data and Services
Roberts, Aaron1; Rezapkin, V.2; King, J.3

The new challenges in solar and space physics, including linking solar phenomena to human consequences as studied in NASA's Living With a Star program, will require unprecedented integration of data and models across many missions, data centers, agencies, and countries. Accomplishing this requires a coordinated effort to link data and service providers to scientific users through software that uses nearly universal language descriptions to give a uniform face to an underlying heterogeneous and distributed set of resources. Such three-part entities—front-end software linked to repositories and services through "gateways" or "brokers"—represent a generalization of the ideas behind the "virtual observatory" (VO) intended to give astronomers virtual access to all observations of the sky.

Success for current and future Sun-Solar System Connection studies (to use the current NASA terminology) will involve an unprecedented integration of contrasting empirical data sets, as well as an integration of observations with models and simulations. Given the work already expended in making resources available, a further integration should be built on the current data systems such as those produced and maintained by national or other data centers and by many particular spacecraft or instrument-based facilities. The resulting data environment must include a sufficient knowledge of formats, spacecraft metadata, and models to allow a scientist to work with physical quantities rather than, say, CDF or FITS files from a specific satellite. Ultimately, users should be able to view simultaneously multiple data sets and/or models in 3-D along with panel plots and images or movies, treating all spacecraft or observatory data in a uniform manner. The ideal would be to have the data and other resources appear to be locally held and uniformly available to a set of applications that are easy to use and that could be linked to perform more complex analysis. Those familiar with applications such as IDL would be able to load data from distant sources transparently so they can use the tools they have developed.

VSPO represents one significant step toward realizing the above goals. As it exists now, it is designed to provide access to a wide variety of data, image, model, and other products or URLs to sites that deliver these products. (“Three clicks from the data,” where possible.) A dynamic web page front end allows “Google-like” and element-based searches for products. “SOAP” interfaces pass internal messages, and are used for direct repository access. Other protocols for the latter (e.g., ftp) will be implemented. Additional service links (for orbits, references, and current space weather) are provided for convenience.

Future plans incude: adding accessors for “ordered” ftp sites and for VSO and other products when the APIs are available; continuin to add products; develop metadata management software; providing an API for access from applications; and producing a companion higher-order query service based on event lists and modest resolution data sets held and manipulated in RAM.

20   00:00   Solar Probe Engineering Concept
Potocki, Kenneth; Eng, Douglas
The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, UNITED STATES

The innermost heliosphere remains one of the last unexplored regions of the Sun-Solar System Connection. NASA recognizes the importance of a space mission, Solar Probe, to travel to the Sun’s corona in a voyage of exploration, discovery, and comprehension. As part of a recent Science and Technology Development Team activity, an efficient mission design and conservative engineering spacecraft concept are proposed. The concept uses known materials, mature technologies, and redundant design of critical subsystems to enhance the probability of mission success. This poster paper will describe the engineering concept.

21   00:00   X-Ray Emission from the Terrestrial Magnetosheath Including the Cusps
Robertson, Ina1; Collier, M. R.2; Cravens, T. E.1; Fok, M.-C.2
1University of Kansas, UNITED STATES; 2Goddard Space Flight Center, UNITED STATES

X-rays are generated throughout the terrestrial magnetosheath as a consequence of charge transfer collisions between heavy solar wind ions and geocoronal neutrals. The solar wind ions resulting from these collisions are left in highly excited states and emit extreme ultraviolet or soft X-ray photons. A model has been created to simulate this X-ray radiation. Previously simulated images were created as seen from an observation point outside the geocorona. The locations of the bow shock and magnetopause were evident in these images. The cusps, however, were not taken into account in the model. We have now used dynamic three-dimensional simulations of the solar wind, magnetosheath and magnetosphere that were performed by the CCMC at Goddard Space Flight Center for the March 31st, 2001 geomagnetic storm. We have generated a sky map of the expected X-ray emissions as would have been seen by an observer at the IMAGE space craft location at that time. We have also generated images as seen from an observation point well outside the geocorona. In both cases the presence of the cusps can clearly be observed.

22   00:00   User Access to the European Grid of Solar Observations
Scholl, Isabelle1; Bentley, R.D.2
1International Space University (ISU), FRANCE; 2 University College London, UNITED KINGDOM

The European Grid of Solar Observations (EGSO) is a grid testbed funded by the European Commission's Fifth Framework Programme under its Information Society Technologies (IST) thematic priority. This 3-year project was designed to provide enhanced access to solar and related data around the world. One front-end of EGSO is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows the user to access all the services offered by the grid from a common and integrated interface. Other front-ends are an IDL API and various dedicated web interfaces to access all the different catalogs built in the frame of this project like the Solar Event Catalog (SEC) the Solar feature Catalog (SFC) the Unified Observing Catalog (UOC). In this paper we will present the final version of the GRID. It includes the GUI, the SSW/IDL API, the access to the different catalogs as well as new registries that help resolving complex queries and distributing queries through the right archives. This version of the GUI also provides users with a new function that helps them to search for the right instruments, knowing only some observational characteristics. All major and recent solar data sets are already accessible from EGSO. EGSO is also closely coupled to the Collaborative Sun-Earth Connector (CoSEC), another virtual observatory-like project, from which it uses processing services. More information about EGSO can be found under

23   00:00   Formation flyers applied to solar coronal observations: the ASPICS mission
Vives, Sebastien1; Lamy, P1; Auchere, F2; Vial, J-C2; Koutchmy, S3; Arnaud, J4
1Lab. d'Astrophysique de Marseille, FRANCE; 2IAS, FRANCE; 3IAP, FRANCE; 4Obs. du Pic du Midi, FRANCE

Classical externally occulted coronagraphs are presently limited in their performances by the distance between the external occulter and the front objective. The diffraction fringe from the occulter and the vignetted pupil which degrades the spatial resolution prevent observing the inner corona inside typically 2-2.5 solar radii. Formation flyers open new perspectives and allow to conceive giant externally occulted coronagraphs using a two-component space system with the external occulter on one spacecraft and the optical instrument on the other spacecraft at approximately 100 m from the first one. We are studying the possibilities offered by this technique for coronal observations in the framework of the mission called ASPICS (Association de Satellites Pour l’Imagerie et la Coronographie Solaire). In the baseline concept, ASPICS includes three coronagraphs operating in three spectral domains: the visible (K-corona brightness), the HI Lyman alpha emission line at 121.6 nm, and the OVI emission line at 103.2 nm. Their unvignetted fields of view extend from 1.1 to 3.2 solar radii with a typical spatial resolution of 3 arcsec. In order to connect coronal activity to photospheric events, ASPICS further includes two disk imagers. One of them is devoted to the HI Lyman alpha emission line and the second one is a multi-channel instrument of the EIT-type which is devoted to the HeII (30.4 nm), FeIX/X (17.1 nm) and FeXII (19.5 nm) emission lines. Two concepts space system are under consideration: a symmetric configuration where the disk imagers and the external occulter are on one spacecraft and the coronagraphs on the other, an asymmetric configuration where the external occulter is on one spacecraft and the scientific instruments are regrouped on the other one.

Xia, L.-D.1; Schwenn, R.2; Donovan, E.3; Marsch, E.2; Wang, J.-S.4; Zhang, Y.-W.5; Tu, C.-Y.4
1University of Science and Technology of China, CHINA; 2Max-Planck-Institut f¨Ήr Sonnensystemforschung, GERMANY; 3University of Calgary, CANADA; 4Peking University, CHINA; 5China Academy of Space Technology and DFH Satellite Co. LTD, CHINA

°KuaFu± is being proposed as a °L1+Polar± triple Star Project and an essential element of the ILWS mission lineup. The KuaFu mission encompasses three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at the L1 libration point and have instruments to observe solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions and white light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field, and high-energy particles. KuaFu-B1 and KuaFu-B2 will be in polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous (24 hours a day) observation of the north polar aurora oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch about in 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.